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    2019ASLA通用設計類榮譽獎:華盛頓大學下雷尼爾維斯塔與步行橋景觀設計 | GGN

    JardinSurLeToit 2019-10-16
    原創
    • 項目名稱:
      華盛頓大學下雷尼爾維斯塔景觀設計
    • 項目地點:
      美國西雅圖
    • 項目規模:
      6.3英畝(約2.4公頃)
    • 設計公司:
      GGN
    • 委托方:
      華盛頓大學
    • 建成時間:
      2015
    • 所獲獎項:
      2019年ASLA專業獎通用設計類榮譽獎

    “位于西雅圖市的華盛頓大學下雷尼爾維斯塔項目為太平洋西北岸最壯麗的景色建立了框架。設計降低了破壞視線通達性的道路,并在其上建設擁有多式聯運樞紐的高架橋。通過重整地形、重新組合、重新設計它的寬闊草坪,項目修復了奧姆斯特德兄弟于1909年提出的校園和雷尼爾山之間的視覺聯系。”

    "The Lower Rainier Vista project on the campus of the University of Washington in Seattle creates the framework for one of the most spectacular views in the Pacific Northwest. The design lowered a road that disrupted the viewshed and created a land bridge over it that covers a multimodal transportation hub. By regrading, reconfiguring, and reimagining its vast lawns, this project has repaired the visual connection between the campus and Mount Rainier first conceived by the Olmsted Brothers in 1909."

    ——2019年ASLA獎評委



    項目概述

    華盛頓大學下雷尼爾維斯塔項目通過多種交通節點的交匯,拓展并完善了奧姆斯特德兄弟對紀念性校園軸線的歷史愿景。設計借鑒了哥特式學院的風格,利用維斯塔精細的地形來框景,融入現代化設施,并增加無障礙設施。新建的高架橋促進了哈士奇體育場、華盛頓大學醫學中心以及校園中心的新建輕軌車站間的步行、騎行、公交和汽車等多式聯運。


    160825  wasla lrv project images1.jpg


    項目詳情

    位于西雅圖市華盛頓大學的雷尼爾維斯塔長約半英里,原為1904年阿拉斯加-尤肯-太平洋博覽會會場的主軸線,它將橢圓形布局的校園與于雷尼爾山的壯美景色連接起來,很快成為這座西海岸大學與其自然環境背景相聯系的標志。


    07+GGN+RainierVista+BeforeAfter+01.jpg


    在隨后的一個世紀中,隨著城市擴張和設施的發展,雷尼爾維斯塔作為校園入口和漫步休閑空間的定位開始面臨挑戰。隨著維斯塔南部地勢較低的區域建設地下車庫,以及周圍主干道的擴建,校園的邊緣變得越來越模糊,最終成為一片空置的、停滿汽車的空間。


    1.jpg

    ▲場地歷史:奧姆斯特德兄弟的設計圖并沒有展現軸線末端以外的地區,經過一個世紀的都市擴張,這一區域由于不是校園的正式入口而被孤立。新的輕軌車站推動了該區域的重新設計。


    新建的地區輕軌車站建設計劃為維斯塔項目帶來了機遇。下雷尼爾維斯塔項目的提出,正是為了借助這條歷史性軸線,將輕軌車站與公交車、自行車道和人行道連接起來。新下雷尼爾維斯塔的設計由五個政府組織協作完成,包括華盛頓大學、華盛頓州交通運輸部、海灣公共交通局、金縣地鐵交通局以及西雅圖交通運輸部。設計團隊從重建維斯塔軸線的設計愿景著手,在歷時五年的設計過程中,將這一核心元素與利益相關者復雜的空間和政策要求相交織。為實現重建維斯塔軸線的宏偉體驗的愿景,維斯塔成為了多種現代化設施系統的紐帶,為步行,或乘坐輕軌、公交車,或騎行,或自駕前來的人們提供服務。


    11.jpg

    ▲雷尼爾維斯塔軸線鳥瞰圖

    9.jpg

    ▲概念草圖


    設計團隊利用項目的巨大規模,在景觀中清晰呈現出下雷尼爾維斯塔軸線。軸線采用高架橋的形式,跨越了一條主要的公交路線,成為校園南部的核心。同時,乘坐輕軌來到華盛頓大學的步行者和騎行者們,以及沿西雅圖區域性騎行道而來的騎行者們,都將在這里相遇。為了提供無縫的行人體驗,設計將與高架橋相交的道路高度下降了20英尺(約6米)。下沉道路的兩側墻面使用石籠工法,其中的石塊來自當地采石場。高架橋簡單的沙漏形式一方面與大學早期的哥特復興式建筑風格相呼應,同時也為下方狹窄道路上行駛的公交車提供空間。


    3.jpg

    ▲俯瞰步行橋:橋將軸線的兩端連接起來,道路下沉,使校園與輕軌車站之間的步行道路無縫連接

    4.jpg

    設計理念:高架橋的“鏡像拱門”形式借鑒了華盛頓大學羅馬學院式的建筑風格,內部邏輯則是用交織的流線來激活空間。

    160825  wasla lrv project images.jpg

    160825  wasla lrv project images2.jpg

    ▲人行高架橋的設計解決了一系列技術問題,如減低造價、減緩道路坡度,維持地鐵線纜暢通,以及減少下方道路上的陰影等。


    沿微微傾斜的Vista延伸的大草坪成為了華盛頓大學的“前廊”,人們在這里聚會、休閑、舉辦活動,小路和小型廣場將Vista與周圍環境連接起來。草坪和Vista的高差營造出視錯覺效果,當人們從校園外望向校內的噴泉時,兩者之間的距離仿佛比實際要近許多。此外,這一高差巧妙地設置地平線的位置,使人們沿著觀景軸線遠眺雷尼爾山時,Montlake大道上的繁忙交通會被弱化。史蒂芬路與高架橋之間的高差巧妙地形成了岬狀和碗狀的空間,帶來多樣化的體驗,為不同的活動提供了場地。


    10.jpg

    ▲從人行橋眺望Drumheller噴泉。地形帶來的視錯覺讓人覺得與噴泉的距離比實際要近。

    5.jpg

    ▲改造前從軸線望向雷尼爾山,人們的視線被繁忙的道路交通吸引

    6.jpg

    ▲改造后,地形微妙起伏、不斷延伸的場地平面將人們的視線引向雷尼爾山,人們可以利用軸線中的小型廣場來穿越草地、休憩,或拍攝雷尼爾山的壯麗景色。


    下雷尼爾維斯塔中的植被多為本土物種,它們經過精心設計,以滿足地下停車場屋頂的荷載限制,并讓該區域融入整個校園的環境氛圍。此外,它們還建立了與雷尼爾山自然景色之間的聯系。那些高達的古老樹木在建設中被妥善保護起來,構成了維斯塔軸線的森林框架。為了將來的植被演替,項目也種植了新的樹木。維斯塔的南端要求植被能夠適應較強的陽光直射,未來隨著樹冠的生長,將變得更加繁茂。


    14.jpg

    ▲從人行高架橋眺望新建輕軌車站和哈士奇體育場,植被為下雷尼爾維斯塔營造了歡迎的氛圍,并與標志性的森林相連。

    13.jpg

    ▲從Montlake大道眺望Drumheller噴泉

    15.jpg

    ▲傍晚遠眺雷尼爾山


    設計方案通過照明、城市家具、維護方式等措施,精心保留了維斯塔開放而整潔的體驗。簡單的預制混凝土長椅整齊排列,構建集聚空間。環境光的強度經過專業計算,以避免在夜間過度照亮空間。照明設計包括巧妙設置在森林背景中的柱燈,以及打亮道路并強化高架橋彎曲輪廓的隱藏式軌道光帶。


    7.jpg

    ▲改造前在軸線上眺望Drumheller噴泉。此時的地形與交通流線主要為汽車服務,而不是行人。

    8.jpg

    ▲改造后在軸線上眺望Drumheller噴泉。新的地形和交通流線主要為行人和自行車服務,設施都隱藏起來了。


    新的下雷尼爾維斯塔為華盛頓大學打開了新的篇章。這一現代城市校園中的項目,為調和歷史遺跡、大型交通設施和人尺度空間體驗之間的關系提供了寶貴的經驗。


    2.jpg

    ▲從輕軌車站望向步行高架橋


    Project Statement


    The University of Washington's Lower Rainier Vista Project extends and completes the Olmsted Brothers' historic vision for a monumental campus axis within the intersection of many transportation modes. The design references Collegiate Gothic forms and uses fine-tuned grading of the Vista to frame views, integrate modern infrastructure, and provide new ADA connections. A new land bridge facilitates multimodal integration of pedestrians, cyclists, buses, and automobiles between the new light rail station at Husky Stadium, the University of Washington Medical Center, and the University campus heart.


    Project Narrative


    The Rainier Vista at the University of Washington in Seattle was originally designed as the spine of the 1904 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition fairgrounds. Linking the pre-existing campus oval plan to the inspiring view of Mount Rainier, the half-mile long Rainier Vista quickly became the iconic representation of this West Coast University's connection to its dramatic natural setting.


    Over the subsequent century of urban growth and infrastructural expansion, the Rainier Vista's role as a campus gateway and a place for strolling and relaxation increasingly came under conflicting pressures. The construction of a parking garage beneath the Vista's southern or "lower" extent, in conjunction with expansion of surrounding arterial roads, led to the eventual blurring of the campus edge into a largely vacant, vehicle-dominated place.


    The opportunity to complete the Vista emerged alongside plans for a new regional light rail station. The Lower Rainier Vista project was conceived to connect the new light rail hub with enhanced bus, bike, and pedestrian routes to the campus through the historic axis. Five government agencies collaborated to realize the new Lower Rainier Vista design, including: the University of Washington, the Washington State Department of Transportation, Sound Transit, King County Metro Transit, and the Seattle Department of Transportation. Starting with a strong design vision for reclaiming the Vista's axis, the design team used this primary element, over a five-year design process, to weave together the complex spatial and political priorities of the many stakeholders. The design vision was to re-establish the grandeur and experience of the original Vista. It has become a new nexus of multiple, contemporary infrastructural systems, serving people arriving by foot, light rail, bus, bicycle, and car.


    The design team leveraged the monumental scale of the project to re-establish the Lower Rainier Vista's axis as a legible "object" in the landscape. Extending over a major bus route via a land bridge, the axis anchors the southern extent of the campus. It also serves as a point of intersection between cyclists and pedestrians arriving from the light rail, as another group of cyclists is passing through on Seattle's primary regional trail. To accomplish the seamless pedestrian experience of a land bridge, the elevation of the roadway bisecting the Vista's axis was lowered by twenty feet. The new sides of the carved roadway were expressed as 'cut earth' through a language of gabion walls filled with local quarry spalls. The simple hourglass form of the bridge itself connects back to the Gothic Revival heritage of much of the University's early architecture, while also allowing clearance for buses passing beneath the narrowed center.


    The newly planted lawns along the gently sloping Vista function as 'front porches' to the University: places for gathering, relaxation, and events, while connecting paths and small plazas link the Vista to its surroundings. The grading of the lawn and Vista creates the illusion of a foreshortened distance from outside of campus looking toward the fountain, making the fountain appear closer than it really is. The grading also uses careful placement of horizons to obscure Montlake Boulevard traffic from key views of Mt. Rainier. Between Stevens Way and the land bridge, the grading subtly forms a promontory and a bowl to create a variety of experiences and to encourage different activities within the axis.


    Native planting, carefully calibrated to work with the load restrictions posed by the existing below-grade parking garage, draws the Lower Rainier Vista into the broader campus character. It also extends to the natural connection presented by the view of Mount Rainier beyond. Heritage trees, significant in stature and carefully protected during construction, compose the axis' forest frame. New trees were interplanted for future succession. The south end of the Vista required plants that will thrive in direct sunlight, but also flourish in the future as the canopy of new trees develops.


    The design was careful to preserve the open, uncluttered experience of the Vista by utilizing lighting, furnishing, and maintenance solutions that supported this vision. Simple pre-cast concrete benches align to create gathering spaces. Ambient light levels were expertly calculated, so as to not over-light the space at night. The lighting design consists of discreet pole lights placed against the backdrop of the forest frame, and a hidden lean rail light source that both illuminates the walking surface and outlines the curving silhouette of the land bridge.


    The new Lower Rainier Vista adds a meaningful chapter to the University's campus legacy. The project offers valuable lessons in reconciling the competing interests of a major historical monument, large transportation infrastructure, and human-scaled experience within the modern urban campus.


    版權聲明:本文由作者翻譯自ASLA,版權歸原作者所有。如轉載、鏈接、轉貼或以其它方式使用本稿,需注明“文章來源:景觀中國網”。

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